Type I Diabetes: When the pancreas fails to produce insulin. This diabetes is more common in children and adolescents (formerly referred to as Juvenile Diabetes).
Type II Diabetes: Defined by the American Diabetic Association as, “a type of diabetes that occurs primarily as a result of insulin resistance, characterized by diminished liver, muscle, and adipose tissue sensitivity to insulin…” (2011c)
Diabetic Medical Management Plan (DMMP): Provider orders outlining daily care of diabetic students. DMMP should address blood glucose monitoring, insulin orders (for blood sugar correction and carb coverage) and treatment for high and low blood sugar (see appendix for MT DMMP).
Hypoglycemia: Low blood glucose, typically less than 70 mg/dl.
Hypergylcemia: High blood glucose, typically over 300 70mg/dl.
Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM): A way to measure glucose levels in real-time throughout the day and night. A tiny electrode called a glucose sensor is inserted under the skin to measure glucose levels in tissue fluid. It is connected to a transmitter that sends the information via wireless radio frequency to a monitoring and display device. (www.medtronicdiabetes.com/treatment-and-products/continuous-glucose-monitoring)
Students with Type I Diabetes
Considerations in Planning Care:
- The school nurse should work with student’s family and provider to obtain a DMMP for each Diabetic student.
- All diabetic students should have an Emergency Care Plan that addresses actions to take if the student is hyperglycemic or hypoglycemic.
- Diabetic students should have an IHP and be considered for a 504 plan.
- The school nurse needs to assist in establishing meetings for all staff involved with student to review care plans and emergency procedures. School nurse oversees training and possible delegation of diabetes care tasks.
Elements of Care Plan for Diabetes:
- Where will supplies be kept? Can they keep extra supplies in the classroom or office?
- Blood glucose testing: When/where will student test? Do they need supervision or assistance? If so, who will that person be and who will train them?
- Blood glucose monitoring: What blood sugar range is acceptable? When and how do parents want to be notified.
- What are the student’s typical symptoms of hypo/hyperglycemia? Can they identify when they have high or low blood sugar? Can they communicate this to an adult?
- If the student cannot self-administer insulin, who will be assisting?
- Snacks for the students: who will provide the snacks and where will they be kept?
- Dietary concerns: Type I Diabetics may also have celiac considerations. If the student is eating school lunch will you be able to provide carb counts?
- Recess accommodations: Does the student need to test their blood glucose prior to recess. What training will the recess aids need?
- Fieldtrip accommodations: What supplies will the student need? Do they need a UAP, licensed person, or parent to accompany them?
- Who will be trained to assist student with daily needs and/or administer glucagon.
- Accommodations during classroom parties: Does the student provide their own snack? Can they participate in the party as long as they cover carbs eaten with insulin?
- Physical activity: discuss with family the effects that exercise has on the student’s blood glucose levels. Consider if BG testing should be done prior to or after PE if necessary.
- After school and extracurricular activities: Identify if the student needs support during extracurricular activity time and discuss your role in supporting this process.
Training School Staff:
- Review ECP with at least all staff that have daily contact with student. You may want all staff to be familiar with a student if they are a young child in elementary school.
- Some staff may need an overview of Diabetes if they will be assisting with care in any way. See example training record under “Forms”.
- Glucagon: Please refer to MCA 20-5-412, otherwise known as “the Glucagon law.” The nurse may facilitate in teaching staff to use glucagon after they have been designated by the diabetic student’s parents. Under this law the nurse is not delegating injection of Glucagon, but is identified as teaching the skill. See “Forms” for glucagon related resources.
Students with Type II Diabetes
Students with Type II Diabetes may not require as much daily assistance as students with Type I Diabetes, but it is still recommended that the school nurse have these students identified as students with a chronic condition. It is advisable to discuss their potential needs with the child’s parents and develop an emergency care plan and any other plans deemed appropriate by the school nurse.
Considerations in Planning Care:
- Dietary concerns: Does this student have any prescribed dietary plan that requires accommodations in the school day?
- Treatment plan support: If the child’s medical provider has them on a treatment plan discuss with the family if there are ways that you can support this plan at school.
MCA 20-5-412 Definition -- parent-designated adult -- administration of glucagon -- training.
- “Pink Panther book”: “A First Book for Understanding Diabetes” from the Children’s Diabetes Foundation of Denver.
- The National Diabetes Education Program school guide, Helping the Student with Diabetes Succeed: A Guide for School Personnel (free), http://ndep.nih.gov/media/Youth_NDEPSchoolGuide.pdf
- Diabetes Care at School: Bridging the Gap.3rd edition. Salus Education, LLC (2013).
- American Diabetes Association, (sample 504 available) www.diabetes.org
- Colorado Kids with Diabetes website (nurse files): www.coloradokidswithdiabetes.org
- The Calorie King Calorie, Fat, and Carbohydrae Counter (2009). A Borushek. Costa Mesa, CA: Family Health Publication. (Also available as a mobile app)
- The Diabetes Carbohydrate and Fat Gram Guide (Lea Ann Holzmeister)
- Glucagon Instructional Training: www.lillyglucagon.comn (also available as mobile app)